Red ceramics produced from mixtures of kaolinite clay and waste glass
© Tiffo et al. 2015
Received: 18 May 2015
Accepted: 28 July 2015
Published: 25 August 2015
Red ceramics were produced at 750°C by mixing reddish yellow kaolinite clay from Marom (West Region of Cameroon) with waste glass (percentage ranging between 0 and 15% mass). Depending on the nature of the materials, kaolinite clay, waste glass and ceramics were characterized by determination of chemical and mineralogical compositions, linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and variation of color of fired samples. Thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were done as well. The final color of ceramics was red, water absorption varied between 17.40 and 13.70%, linear shrinkage ranged between 0.70 and 1.20% and flexural strength was between 5.30 and 8.10 MPa. These results showed that mixing kaolinite clay with waste glass is an interesting process to get red ceramics destined for red bricks or roofing tiles at 750°C.
KeywordsKaolinite clay Waste glass Mixtures Red ceramics
Since millennia, people have been using clay products in various forms such as earth blocks, fired bricks, roofing tiles for construction and other related uses. These materials are important to our daily life with respect to their properties which enable human beings to construct buildings all around the world according to their mechanical strength, durability, water absorption or chemical resistance (Aubert et al. 2013). Sub-Saharan Africa countries have potential sources of clay deposits for which kaolinite is generally the main mineral associated among other with quartz, goethite, hematite, anatase and alkaline oxides (Yakoubi et al. 2006; Traoré et al. 2007). These last oxides require low temperature to melt and act as binders which link particles of clay during the sintering process. However clays with low alkaline oxide and great amount of iron oxide require high temperature for maturation so as to get suitable ceramic products (Aliprandi 1979; Sei et al. 2004; Elimbi et al. 2014). It is an appeal to reduce energy consumption and to protect our environment for sustainable development (Oti and Kinuthia 2012; Sultana et al. 2015). The world over, treatment and management of wastes is crucial (Suzuki and Tanaka 1997; Sultana et al. 2015). Studies referring to addition of low quantity of certain types of waste to clays in order to manufacture reliable ceramic products such as fired bricks remain of date (Zhang 2013). Waste glass must receive careful attention for environmental issues according to their non-biodegradable nature and can be recycling into new items. Waste glass can be utilized as flux to replace common fluxes such as feldspar or other mineral fluxes to save energy in ceramic manufacturing process (Bragança and Bergmann 2004; Rozenstrauha et al. 2006; Raimondo et al. 2007; Rambaldi et al. 2007; Andreola et al. 2008; Dondi et al. 2009; Djangang et al. 2014).
The present study focused on determination of physical characteristics (such as linear shrinkage, water absorption, variation of color) and flexural strength of ceramics obtained at 750°C using waste glass and reddish yellow colored kaolinite clay whose composition contains high mass percentage of iron oxide and low mass percentage of alkaline oxides. However, waste glass is abundant and available especially in urban zones as consequence of daily activities. In spite of this, in many African countries and particularly in Cameroon, there is not always specialized industries in charge of collecting, storing and reusing of waste materials, while it can provide added economical benefits if waste glass can be converted to useful materials and be recycled (Rambaldi et al. 2007; Djangang et al. 2014). Hence this can make waste glass potential secondary input for traditional ceramics production. Such formulations are typically used to manufacture building materials such as fired bricks or roofing tiles. Clays are very common raw materials of such products and glass addition is the opportunity to reuse waste glass to lower maturation temperature in order to reduce the cost of production of these ceramic products in economic plan.
Materials and experimental methods
The studied clay material labeled as K was collected from the area of Marom (West Region of Cameroon) which is located in the central domain of the PanAfrican belt of Cameroon (Nzenti et al. 1998; Ganwa et al. 2008). This area is composed of gneisses and granites partly capped by volcanic rocks of tertiary age from the “Cameroon Volcanic Line”. Geology formations of the Maron area are mainly mylonites of granite compositions and clay minerals that were probably developed thanks to the strong mylonitization of the rocks that facilitated circulations of superficial waters and thus the strong alteration of granitic rocks. Once collected, blocks of reddish yellow colored clay sample were first cured at room temperature for 2 weeks then dried at 105°C for 48 h. The dried blocks were crushed and then ground in a ball mill and the resulted powder was sifted using an 80 µm mesh sieve. Colorless waste glass bottles collected from garbage cans, were broken into pieces, washed and dried at 105°C. The resulted pieces were crushed then sieved via an 80 µm mesh sieve to get colorless glass powder which was labeled as V.
Four types of mixtures denoted as KV0, KV1, KV2 and KV3 were elaborated between powders of K and V according to mass compositions of Additional file 1: Table S1. To get a mixture, powders of K and V were homogenized in distilled water in order to get a slurry which was kept at the ambient atmosphere of the laboratory for 24 h. The mixture was completely oven-dried at 110°C for 72 h then crushed and sieved using an 80 µm sieve. For each type of mixture, two kinds of test samples were produced by extrusion: parallelepiped (82 mm × 42 mm × 9 mm) and cylindrical (13 mm diameter and 9 mm height). The obtained test specimens were cured for 48 h at ambient temperature of laboratory, oven-dried at 110°C for 48 h then fired in a kiln (Nabertherm, model LH 60/40) at 750°C at the rate of 5°C/min for two hours. The firing temperature of 750°C was chosen as a result of preliminary test which showed that the used glass powder started to melt around 700°C. The chemical analysis was carried out by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry via a Perkin Elmer-Optima 7000DV device. The crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction using a Philip PW 3050/60 diffractometer which operated by reflection of Kα1 radiation of Copper. Thermal analysis were performed thanks to a NETZSCH STA-449F3 (TG and DTA) operating at the rate of 20°C/min and an Adamel-Lomargy model DM-15 (dilatometry) which operated at the speed of 5°C/min. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed with the aid of a Bruker Alpha-P, operating in absorbance mode. The variation of color of fired products versus temperature was examined using the Munsell Soil Color Charts (2000). Linear shrinkage was determined on parallelepiped fired test specimens thanks to a caliper (ROCH France, Patented S.G.D.G.) and water absorption was carried out on cylindrical fired test specimens using NF-P-18-554 standard (Norme Française 1979). Flexural strength was performed according to EN-100 standard (Norme Européenne 1982) on parallelepiped fired test specimens using an electro-hydraulic press (M & O, type 11.50, and No 21) operating at an average rate of 3 mm/min.
Results and discussion
Raw materials characterization
Characterization of mixtures and ceramics
Thermal behavior and color of the mixtures
XRD and FTIR analysis
Physical and mechanical properties
Red ceramics were produced by heating (750°C) samples of mixtures of reddish yellow colored kaolinite clay with waste glass (percentage ranging between 0 and 15% mass). The chemical analysis of the clay revealed both low content of alkaline oxides and rich amount of ferrous oxide. The mineralogical characterization of the clay revealed the presence of minerals such as kaolinite, quartz α, rutile, lepidocrocite and others unconfirmed phases attributed particularly to organic matter as confirmed by thermal analysis. Waste glass can be considered as potential fluxing additive that can substitute feldspars in terra cotta for low heating temperature production. Hence increasing the mass percentage of waste glass in mixtures with kaolinite clay leads to fired products whose linear shrinkage and flexural strength increase while there is decrease of water absorption. This is attributed to the densification of samples via the viscous flow mechanism induced by a vitreous phase brought about by the fusion of waste glass. The obtained results show that mixing waste glass with poorly alkaline oxide and abundant ferrous oxide kaolinite clay content is an interesting process to get red ceramics destined for the making of bricks or roofing tiles at 750°C.
differential thermal analysis
fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry
mixture of Kaolinite clay and glass powder
Sans Garantie Du Gouvernement
ET and AE participated in the research process. JDM helped for the determination of different crystalline phases on the DRX patterns and for grinding and sieving the raw materials (both clay and waste glass). ABT helped to collect the raw materials and to achieve thermal analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical guidelines
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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