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Table 1 Levels of learning

From: Transformative learning to promote sustainability: inserting the third level of learning in management programs

Orders of change/learning   Seeks/leads to: Can be labelled as:
First order change/cognition   Effectiveness/efficiency “Doing things better”
Confirmative
Second order change/meta-cognition Examining and changing assumptions “Doing better things”
Reformative
Third order change/epistemic learning Paradigm change “Seeing things differently”
Transformative
  1. Source: Sterling (2010–2011, p. 25)